Exploring Grant Awards in the UK – Open Data Manchester March 17

GrantNav brings together information about grants awarded by a variety of funders in the UK. Because the data is published with a common standard, it’s easy to create analyses and visualisations that a) work for any of the funders’ data and b) can compare grant portfolios across funders.

You can download the whole dataset as a csv file. It’s also available to browse in GrantNav, a 360Giving application released under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Sharealike License (CC-BY-SA). Please see GrantNav’s copyright and attribution list for details on the original data sources.

The grants.csv table has a row per award with columns describing a variety of attributes such as date of award, amount awarded, recipient, funder and beneficiary.

We created some exploratory visualisations of this data at last months’ Open Data Manchester workshop – “Getting to Grips with Data”. The idea with exploratory analysis is that you start with some data and you simply want to know what is there – to uncover the shape and scope. You can get to grips with a dataset by understanding what dimensions or variables it includes and what values those variables take. You would typically use summaries like frequency tables, cross tabulations, and distributional analysis. These statistical descriptions provide views into the data which quickly provoke questions about the patterns within.

One aspect we chose to explore was the size of grants awarded (in the Amount Awarded column). Two things soon became apparent: first, that each funder has a very different award portfolio, and second, that the amounts tended to cluster around certain values. This seemed intuitive – since funding is often offered with specific thresholds, we might expect applicants to design their projects with these in mind, asking for more or less money than they might otherwise have done.

We settled on an analysis called a “cumulative frequency distribution” as a way of visualising these aspects. We’ll explain this in detail below, but, since a picture speaks a thousand words, we invite you to take a look at the chart first. Feel free skip the technical description and jump to read about the conclusions we can draw from this data graphic.

Distribution of Grants by Value


What is a cumulative frequency distribution?

A frequency distribution tells us how common certain values are across a range. Whereas an average provides a summary of a set of values by telling us about the middle, a frequency distribution tells us about the middle, ends and all the values in between. The same average value can arise from many different distributions (e.g. a few very small values and many large ones or many small values and a few very large ones). The distribution is calculated by taking a range (e.g. £0 – £1,000,000), then dividing it into bins (e.g. £0-99, £100-999, £1,000-4,999 …), then counting the number of values that fall into each bin – aka the frequency (e.g. £0-99: 100 grants, £100-999: 363 grants, £1,000-4,999: 789 grants etc). These can be a bit tricky to interpret however, as the frequency depends upon the bin size.

A cumulative frequency distribution take a cumulative tally of frequencies. Whereas a frequency distribution might say “there were x awards between 10,000-15,000” a cumulative distribution would say “there were x awards up to 15,000”. This makes the interpretation slightly easier as we can say “x awards were less than £y”. In order to compare funders – who each make different numbers of awards – we’ve transformed the frequencies into a proportion by dividing by the total number of awards made by each – i.e. “x% of awards at were less than £y”.

How should I interpret the chart?

We can then plot the cumulative frequency distribution – here we’ve mapped the amount awarded on to the horizontal x-axis and the cumulative proportion of award by number on to the vertical y-axis.

Given that distribution is highly skewed (there are many small grants, and few large ones) we’ve transformed the x-axis using a logarithmic scale (with base 10). That means that each step along the scale represents a 10 fold increase in the £ amount (a typical linear scale would map an constant £ amount for each step). Practically speaking, this helps to spread the curves out across the graphic so that they’re easier to distinguish and not bunched-up on the left, making better use of the space available.

The curves show the proportion of each funder’s awards that were made up to a given size of award. Flatter vertical segments indicate many awards being made with that amount, flatter horizontal segments indicate fewer awards being made over a range of amounts. Where one curve is above another, that indicates that they focus more of their awards at that level (i.e. making more awards by number, relative to the total number in their portfolio).

What does this analysis tell us about grant funding in the UK?

Let’s return to the chart again. What can you see?

There are clear vertical segments around funding thresholds. This is most obvious in the case of the Big Lottery Fund, around the £5,000 and £10,000 mark.

We can also see some funders focus on a narrow range – the Lloyds Bank Foundation, for example, makes around 90% of it’s awards between £10,000 and £50,000 – whereas the Dulverton Trust and the Northern Rock Foundation have a much broader spread.

The BBC’s Children in Need fund does have an obvious threshold at £10,000, like the Big Lottery Fund, but actually makes most of its awards at a higher level (up to around £100,000).

The Esmée Fairbairn Foundations – the right-most curve across most of the range, focusses on larger awards with around a third over £100,000.

How do I make one of these?

You will no doubt be able to make other comparisons, and draw other conclusions from the graphic. Indeed it probably provokes more questions. What would this look like in terms of proportion of funding by value (instead of by number of awards)? How does this compare in absolute terms (i.e. overall number of awards, not proportion)? What about the smaller funders we removed to make the chart easier to read?!

If you’d like to find answers to those questions, or explore other parts of the dataset, then you can find the R code used to generate the analysis and graphics on github. We introduce the data.table library used to make summary tables and the ggplot2 library used to design and create the visualisations. You can also follow-along with the exploration process and find links to learning resources in the comments placed throughout the source-code.

Follow Robin Gower on Twitter @robsteranium

Data visualisation – getting to grips with data

Tuesday 28th March, 18.30 – 21.00
Federation
Federation Street
Manchester
M4 2AH

Tickets here

This is a rerun of Open Data Manchester’s popular data visualisation training.
This will be a hands-on event looking at visualisation and data cleaning tools such as Google Refine and Fusion Tables, R and leaflet.js. If you have experience of other platforms feel free to rock up and share with others.
The emphasis will be on working in small groups and sharing practice.
So if you have data that you are interested in visualising, a visualisation that you want to explore or are just want to get an idea of available tools – bring your laptop
If you are a data newbie or Processing pro – join us.

Many thanks to Federation for hosting this months event.

Echo Chambers and ‘Post-fact’ Politics – developing ideas

Half day workshop to build tools for a ‘post-fact’ world

Apparently we’ve ‘had enough of experts’. Increasingly online platforms quietly tailor what we encounter to fit our existing views- creating echo chambers out of our prejudices. We are worried that the role of evidence in politics is slipping- and we want to do something about it.

A preliminary workshop was held in November attracting a broad range of people from far and wide. Together a list of initiatives was created responding to these challenges. Click this link to read the list of initiatives and add your own thoughts.

Now we are running a follow-on event to allow people to develop these ideas. If you’re an activist, policy wonk, artist, or simply someone interested in this topic we’d love for you to join us. It doesn’t matter if you didn’t make the first event as we will get you up to speed with a chance to add new ideas on the day.

For more information regarding the Echo Chambers and ‘Post-fact’ Politics workshops go to www.postfactpolitics.com

2017 programme update

It has taken longer than expected but our 2017 programme is finally getting off the ground. The programme, highlighted in the last post, was a provisional one and we hope to track it as well as we can over the coming months.

February kicks off our programme with two events both related to last November’s Echo Chambers and ‘Post-fact’ Politics event. On Saturday 18th February, in partnership with The Democratic Society we will be running a workshop that develops the ideas from November’s event and turns them into action. The event is free and if you couldn’t make it to the first event and would like to attend, we will quickly get you up to speed. The evening of Tuesday 28th February will be a regular Open Data Manchester meeting where initiatives developed from the workshop will be showcased. As always if you want to add to the event in any way, contact us or just turn up.

The evening meeting will be a chance to look at national and international open data events taking place in the coming months.

Provisional programme for 2017

IMG_0066From last night’s planning meeting we now have a provisional programme for 2017 and it is quite an ambitious one. What is great from our perspective is that there is a continuation of a number of themes that we have been looking at over the last year and a resurfacing of perennial ones. Highlights include the ‘making and doing’ workshops that have been developed as part of the Echo Chambers and ‘Post-Fact’ Politics programme and the Visualising Data workshops. There are a number of sector and technically specific events but one to watch out for is alternative ways of looking at the world which will be a day of walks, talks and explorations. As always there is a large dose of how data and technology impact on society and much more.

This is a provisional programme and we are looking for as much input as possible (Dates and sessions are subject to change). Please click on the Google Doc and add comments. We are looking for people who can contribute, sponsors, venues and partners.

Link to Google Doc

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Looking back and planning ahead – November 29th

18.30 – 20.30, Tuesday 29th November 2016
Spaceport X
24-26 Lever Street
Manchester
M1 1DZ

Help build Open Data Manchester’s programme for 2017

It is the time of year when we step back and take a look at what we’ve done over the past year, look at what’s happening in the world of data, and plan for 2017.

Open Data Manchester is a community of many diverse interests from transportation to politics and everything in between. The events that we put on are representative of this and driven by our community. You want more visualisation? You got it. You want more health? It’s on the list. You want more democracy? We can do that too. We need people to help programme and deliver these events – after all it is what we have been doing since 2010.

Come down to Spaceport X on the 29th and help make a great programme for 2017.

Fancy sponsoring our 7th birthday on March 28th 2017? Get in touch and celebrate with us.

Register here

Echo5

A one-day workshop to develop new ways of tackling a ‘post-fact’ world

12th November 2016, 10.00 – 16.00. The Shed, Chester Street, Manchester
The event is free, register here

We live in interesting times. Trust in, and respect for experts seems to be declining-  Michael Gove recently said that we’ve ‘had enough of experts’. Increasingly online platforms quietly tailor what we encounter to fit our existing views- creating echo chambers out of our prejudices. At the same time political issues are becoming more and more complex as science and technology advances and society becomes more complicated.

These and other changes seem like a perfect storm for breeding a dystopian world in which the importance of evidence slowly slips out of view. But at the same time technology also offers hope for more enlightened debate- with the internet creating many new opportunities to engage, learn, and create. So we want to do something about these issues.

We want to draw together people with a wide range of experience and interest to try and unpick these issues and think what we can start developing ways of tackling these. Whether you’re an artist, an activist, a policy wonk, or simply someone interested in this area we want to hear your ideas.

We will be using an ‘unconference’ style, which means that people who come to the event will shape what we talk about. The aim will be to identify where the challenges lie and think of potential solutions, leading to a future event where we will develop these ideas further and- hopefully- start to get them built.

To start the discussion we will be creating a website and encourage people to submit short blogs related to the theme.

Register here

This event is organised by Open Data Manchester and The Democratic Society with the kind support of Manchester Metropolitan University and Digital Innovation at MMU

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Slides and audio from What happened? The data behind the referendum

July’s event looking at how data was used before, during and after the referendum provoked plenty of thought provoking discussion. The two presentations from Celia Russell and Julian Tait have now been uploaded on to SlideShare and the audio posted on Soundcloud. Unfortunately due to a noisy video projector the audio isn’t the best but the presentations and discussions from Michelle Brook, Bob Barr, Celia Russell and Julian Tait are audible and have been edited down as separate files.

Celia Russell – Making sense of Brexit?

Julian Tait – Some graphs and data around the referendum

The audio can be found here

We are putting together a follow up event looking at belief, evidence and politics that will take place in November.

Open Smart Cities

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As part of Wuthering Bytes  a one day event looking at how to apply technology, data science and innovation to the places we live.

We have partnered with: ODI Leeds & sponsorsLeeds Data ThingThings Network (Leeds and Manchester)OpenData ManchesterCalderdale DataWorksMySocietyThe ODI, and more to be confirmed.

A full day of exploration, show & tell, and collaborative work – where we try and answer the questions:

Cities are about people arent they? And not everyone lives in a city.

&

What does that mean for your Smart City or Place , Internet of Things, [Insert New Thing] Technology, when it meets people?

By the end of the day we’ll all know more, have made new friends & maybe started to build new stuff (products, services, capability & capacity) which will lead to some answers to the question ‘But cities & places are about people aren’t they?’

More details and tickets here

Making data useful and other stories – How GM authorities are using data to help their citizens

6.30pm – 8.30pm, Tuesday 27th September 2016
Greenheys Business Centre
Manchester Science Park
Pencroft Way
Manchester M15 6JJ

Map here

Sign up on Eventbrite here

This month’s Open Data Manchester looks at how two local authorities are using data to deliver service.

Alison Mckenzie Folan and Alison Hughes from Wigan Council will show how they are using data and open data to help them engage the community, target resources and enhance services. Wigan Deal has been seen as an exemplar of engagement between the public sector, local businesses and community.

Jamie Whyte leads Trafford Innovation Lab which has been developing new and innovative ways to make open data understandable. The insight created has enabled community groups to use data to help them apply for funding, created resources for councillors and shown a spotlight onto the complex world of school admissions

Open Data Manchester events are spaces for learning, discussion and collaboration. The events are open and free